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Application of 40 principles for public sector Innovation

Paul Sun
E-mail: paul0938803@hotmail.com

In the recent development of TRIZ research, much effort has been put in extending TRIZ to a broader application, especially the application in non-technical areas. Generally, researchers attempts in the last decade trying to find the examples and illustrations of TRIZ applicable in non-technological areas. But it is not sufficient because at least one important area in these subjects is not described with Altshuller's principles. Before that Boris Zlotin and Alla Zusman began the research about evaluating the applications of TRIZ in social systems (Boris Zlotin and Alla Zusman, 1993). They defined social systems as Enterprise, Government agency, Professional association, Social institution, Educational institution, Family, and Country Society as a whole. However, this eight non-technological version of 40 inventive principles is not sufficient because non-technological version is divided into private and public sector. Therefore, we find out that not all of the 40 inventive principles are short for public service industries, and better to apply 40 inventive principles to public service sector; a more tailored version of the principles might have to be created. One of the ways to do it is to examine and benchmark across different service industries the best practices or service innovations, which imply the application of TRIZ inventive principles. This might be helpful to better portrait the generic TRIZ innovation patterns in public service sectors.

1. Segmentation

A. Divide an object or system into independent parts.
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1.public service packages can be divided into several components: supporting facility, facilitating policies, explicit services and implicit services.
B. Make an object or system easy to disassemble.
1. The body of customers can be segmented based on the information such as their needs ages and behaviors, etc.
C. Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation.
1. Service center can improve service delivery efficiency by segmenting the service ranges into several categories, and pre-arranging them in the tape of automatic phone answer system. It shortens the time for customers to find the right consultant for enquiry.
2. Extraction, Taking out
A. Separate an interfering part or property from an object or system, or single out the only necessary part (or property) of an object or system.
1. Analysis the structural power deployment and causes by reexamining with environmental sociology to avoid local resistance.
2. Hospitals send out blood donation ambulances so that donators do not have to travel to the hospitals
3. Local Quality
A. Change an object or system's structure from uniform to non-uniform; change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform.
1. Public expectations are increasingly that services will be tailored to personal and local needs; Service offerings should be customized based on the needs of customers (e.g., public buildings must provide various entrances for people who can drive in, walk in, or even for those who are handicapped to entry.)
2. Politician calls for local resource based on election benefits.
B. Make each part of an object or system function in conditions most suitable for its operation.
1. Local government usually chooses their locations at heavily populated areas to maximize the revenues.
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2. Politician participate all kinds’ local activities in order to get closer to their customers (people) as well as a future potential voter.
C. Make each part of an object or system fulfills a different and useful function.
1. Government should Launch experiments directed to the growth of flows in the following ways: improving the organization of collective work, Motivating producers to increase their service productivity by turning over a portion of the produced flows to them (Boris Zlotin et.al, 2005).
2. Recognize and make use of the differences in the cultures of the different communities, interviews conducted with individuals/small groups, treat transactions among them differently from external transactions.
3. Different from civil servant, as one of the unique elements in service delivery can play a vital role to improve the quality of service offerings (e.g., local autonomy)
4. In most public sectors, despite due process by law, service package is a mix of tangible and intangible goods, which play their own functions respectively for creating good experience for customers.
4. Asymmetry
A. Change the shape of an object or system from symmetrical to asymmetrical.
1. Providing customized service offerings instead of standard one can help to create a unique experience.
2. Social functions with unequal influence on social units, Pathfinders, pilots, controlled experimentation and ‘zones’ are ‘safe spaces’ for managing risks within defined parameters.
B. If an object or system is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry.
1. Offer differentiation (e.g., offer free financial or law consulting services to specific civilians.
2. Ensuring a strong diversity of services and exploiting difference
5. Merging, Combining
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A. Bring closer together (or merge) identical or similar objects or systems; assemble identical or similar parts to perform parallel operations.
1. Combine the views of new institutionalism and policy network to break policy network away from vague description
2. Integrate welfare services into one-stop shops.
3. Identical or similar service is usually put together for the convenience by Public organization (e.g., works of the same times, or the same topic).
B. Make operations contiguous or parallel; bring them together in time.
1. Teamwork, the team of new service development should consist of the members from cross-functional departments
2. Large organizations can marshal and distribute the necessary quantity and variety of resources and expertise, and exercise considerable leverage on suppliers, can integrate diverse activities, initiatives, social and organizational arrangements, and have an interest in high quality across all their operating units to maintain reputation.
6. Universality
A. Make a part or object or system perform multiple functions; eliminate the need for other parts.
1. Service offering might perform multiple functions by satisfying various needs of customers (e.g., one stop shop which might include a set of functions and some other intangible elements).
Multipurpose uses of social bases, Transition to the economic management (EM) system if the following conditions are in place: Sufficient level of social flows (wealth), Restrictions in basic economic laws, human rights protection, People’s readiness to accept a democratic form of government (Boris Zlotin et.al, 2005).
B. Use standardized features
1. Governing the Allocation of Government Revenues and Expenditures, Distribution by Reexamining of the legal and fiscal systems and setting some new laws at local level.
2. ISO 9004-2:1991(E), Guide to Quality Management and Quality Systems Elements for Services.
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7. Nesting
A. Place one object or system inside another; place each object or system, in turn, inside the other.
1. Get Passive public organizations ready for activation, generating possibilities, stimulate and support ideas for service innovation.
2. Operation station would be a boring experience if no more extra services during long process, offering some entertainment like books incorporated in the flight package.
B. Make one part passes through a cavity in the other.
1. The operations of shop office should not be isolated from the operations of front station. (Receptionists should know the operational status in office, such as proceeding status).
8. Counterweight, balance
A. To compensate for the weight of an object or system, merge it with other objects or systems that provide lift.
1. Governmental Reform with reasonable and fair Pay System can be the key attribute to the career development of Civil Servant and work moral.
2. Public sectors invite famous academic experts to provide professional opinions in order to achieve better performance.
B. To compensate for the weight of an object or system, make it interact with the environment (e.g. use aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, buoyancy and other forces).
1. Collaborate with the NGO groups to gain recognition rapidly public service performance.
2. Word-of-mouth effect, a communication medium of service organizations that might offer broadcasting ongoing or up coming services.
9. Prior counter-action
A. If it will be necessary to do an action with both harmful and useful effects, this action should be replaced with anti-actions to control harmful effects.
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1..Analyze the Civil Servant Performance evaluation and Pay system by「Bounded Rationality」 and 「Game Theory」.
2. Before announce of a new service product, preventive analysis and risk controlled research should be done to keep any potential failure from the service offering.
B. Create beforehand stresses in an object or system that will oppose known undesirable working stresses later on.
1. Prior counter-action, whatever the mechanism for testing and developing new ideas, involving end-users early in designing and developing prototypes increases the likelihood of identifying and remedying flaws and weaknesses.
2. “Help” file and SOP booklet is always needed in a working space to help users to solve problems whenever they meet.
10. Prior actions
A. Perform, before it is needed, the required change of an object or system (either fully or partially).
1. Funding for early development, for problems, which have appeared intractable to current or past policies or in service areas, where overall performance is not satisfactory and where there is little or no evidence on the ‘best’ way forward.
2. Recognizing and making necessary social situations for future, Perform, before it is needed, the required change of an object or system (either fully or partially), basic training for the skills like customer interaction skills is needed before they begin to work and represent for service sector.
3. Nice setting for service facilities would be beneficial to create wonderful experiences for customers.
4. Put up sign posters and location maps as route directions for public park visitors.
B. Pre-arrange objects or systems such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery.
1. Pre-arrange stations or systems such that they can come into action from the most convenient place and without losing time for their delivery.
2. To shorten the station checking time.
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3. The widespread use of antibiotics in health care may have created antibiotic-resistant conditions and the development of alternative approaches to disease prevention and treatment.
11. Cushion in advance
A. Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object or system.
1. In general, Governments have relied on two sets of mechanisms:
♦ law, central direction and administrative command; and
♦ Dissemination of evaluations of pilots
2. To manage service capacity and smooth customer demand, use a set of preventive strategies such as advertising early to avoid rush, and using appointment and reservations.
12. Equipotentiality
A. In a potential field, limit position changes (e.g. change operating conditions to eliminate the need to raise or lower objects or systems in a gravity field).
1. Examine and adopt the independent effects and relative effects of transformational leadership on organizational citizenship behavior.
2. Central command and control methods can be implemented by effective control that the innovation is highly likely to increase Public Administration service working performance
3. Changing the environment for changing social unit, connecting network system for social policy.
4. Transformational leadership Administration further analyzes by Game Theory about current Pay System can offer the platform of the discussion of some problem.
13. Inversion
A. Invert the action(s) used to solve the problem (e.g. instead of cooling an object or system, heat it).
1. Rigid law requirements lost popular at first, but win reputation later.
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B. Make movable parts (or the external environment) fixed, and fixed parts movable).
1. Motive Service for aging earn trust advantages by delivering services
C. Turn the object (or process) 'upside down'.
1. On many occasions, outcome of performance can be better by doing nothing instead of servicing.
2. Protect itself from destruction in the following ways: Economic, Administrative (centralization, planning), Policy (enforcement of power, various prohibitions, declaring a “state of emergency,” etc.).
14. Spheroidality
A. Instead of using rectilinear parts, surfaces, or forms, use curvilinear ones; move from flat surfaces to spherical ones; from parts shaped as a cube (parallelepiped) to ball-shaped structures.
1. Reconciliatory Mechanism of Conflicts conducts between Central Government and Local Government.
2. Defining social centers and social levels, non-linear management process with different skills, resources, organizational methods, leadership and cultures.
B. Use rollers, balls, spirals, and domes.
1. Additional monetary reward is less powerful as a motivator for innovation in the public agency. Recognition, especially by peers, is more effective.
2. Feedbacks from frontline staffs are valuable to developing new public services.
C. Go from linear to rotary motion, use centrifugal forces.
1. Creating and exemplifying a culture, which encourages new ideas wherever, they may come from.
2. The process of new service development is highly iterative rather than just being linear.
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15. Dynamicity
A. Allow (or design) the characteristics of an object, external environment, or process to change to be optimal or to find an optimal operating condition.
1. Organization CEO can empower frontline civil servant the discretionary right in delivering services.
B. Divide an object or system into parts capable of movement relative to each other.
1. The team of new service development should consist of the members from cross-functional departments.
C. If an object (or process) is rigid or inflexible, make it movable or adaptive.
1. Customer demands usually follow certain pattern. Thus service organizations can try to adapt service capacities to meet customer demands (e.g., airlines increase flights during peak season; restaurants hire temporary civil servant).
2. Intensive attention to the views of users, frontline civil servant and middle managers.
3. Innovative thinking and action can flourish in conditions of heterogeneity and even constructive conflict.
4. Exchange civil servant between the two sites on either a temporary or permanent basis, rapid response team tasked with integration, take the opportunity to instill ‘change is the only constant’ culture – thus increasing preparedness for future events, flexible/non-hierarchical organization structure, rapid reaction force.
16 Partial or overdone action
A. If 100 percent of an object or system is hard to achieve using a given solution method then, by using 'slightly less' or 'slightly more' of the same method, the problem may be considerably easier to solve.
1. Giving beforehand notices and explanations to civilian for temporary unavailability of services can prevent loss of loyalty due to blind waiting (e.g., websites put notice links, for instance, to explain the temporary failure of services; window service put notice like “the standard SOP procedures” to avoid blind waiting)
2. People can be delighted if the perceived service quality exceeds their expectations.
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3. Developing visionary goals with assignment for civil servants and driving them through.
4. Service organizations can empower frontline civil servant the discretionary right in delivering services. (e.g., civil servants can create a customized welcome gift for civilian when public meeting take place).
5. Spread understanding and concept of optimal service across organizations and across sectors.
17. Moving to a new dimension
A. To move an object or system in two- or three-dimensional space.
1. Multi-dimensional civilian and other party’s satisfactions surveys; the use of House of Quality in service design (QFD).
B. Use a multi-story arrangement of objects or systems instead of a single-story arrangement.
1. Adopting Differentiation of civil servant on the basis of their needs, behaviors, ages, etc, the application of Maslow demand theory.
C. Tilt or re-orient the object or system lay it on its side.
1. Redefinition of social problem in political, economical, and cultural dimensions
2. Supporting and defending new policy and high-risk civil servant pilots.
D. Use 'another side' of a given area.
1. Voting mechanisms – e-mail voting, postal voting only, text messaging, etc – were tested in local elections.
2. Constant scanning of civilian satisfactions by learning from investigation surveys.
18. Mechanical vibrations
A. Cause an object or system to oscillate or vibrate.
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1. Preparing indefinite social situations how the internal diversity in skills and experiences of the employees within organizations must match the variety and complexity of the environment in order to deal with challenges posed by the environment.
2. Benchmarking the best practices across different service department or same organizations would be helpful to improve the service quality and keep innovating in developing service offerings.
B. Increase its frequency (even up to the ultrasonic).
1. Civil servant training for specific cause day of week at less frequent intervals.
C. Use an object's or system's resonant frequency.
1. In harmony with civilian with the goal of resolving problems by taking constant meetings.
D. Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical ones.
E. Use combined ultrasonic and electromagnetic field oscillations.
19. Periodic actions
A. Instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions.
1. Weekly or daily information is a network of learning and online information services that was developed by the government for people provides convenience.
2. Airlines increase flights on hot routing in tour season; cinemas put on more show sessions in weekends)
B. If an action is already periodic, change the periodic magnitude or frequency.
1. Service demands in some service station typically exhibit very cyclic behavior over periods of time, with considerable variation between the peaks and valleys. Some means might be helpful to smooth the magnitude of demand on the peak time.
C. Use pauses between impulses to perform a different action.
1. In the operations of police system, turn mechanism and inspections of the working conditions should be regular (periodic) to prevent the accidental breakdown.
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2. Employee can be trained during periods of low customer demand, and thus be prepared for periods of high demand.
20. Continuity of a useful action
A. Carry on work continuously, makes all parts of an object or system work at full load, all the time.
1. Continuity of a useful action with small changes, replicating and scaling up, promotes the rapid and effective diffusion of successful public innovation?
2. Public sector uses a source of skilled labor of their retired employees to work as experienced consultant.
3. Make services and facilities in the state of continuous delivery (e.g., customer hotline, monthly or weekly chief interviews with both civil servant and public civilian).
4. Government specified constant short of service training, and then required every department to follow it. The prototype was research-based, effectively designed, rapidly tested and then rolled out within the space. It achieved a greater improvement of reading results than over any other equivalent period of time.
B. Eliminate all idle or intermittent actions or work.
1. Setting and relentlessly communicating clear and inspirational outcomes for the organizations and areas for which they are responsible.
21. Rushing through
A. Conduct a process, or certain stages (e.g. destructible, harmful or hazardous operations) at high speed.
1. Using fast process in social crisis.
2. Keep people in waiting for promising policies takes the risk of losing their loyalty. Shortening the waiting time (Skipping this harmful time) can be realized by setting up more service counters, or hire more part-time employees.
3. To increase the automation level, many service organizations try to shorten the direct customer contact time (e.g., the use of time value system of LEAN or online reservation system).
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22. Convert harm into benefit, "Blessing in disguise"
A. Use harmful factors (particularly, harmful effects of the environment or surroundings) to achieve a positive effect.
1. Improve the quality in service delivery by listening to VOC.
2. Using catalysts in social processes, creating space, there is a need to develop a dissident culture in which organizational rule breaking is encouraged and managed.
B. Eliminate the primary harmful action by adding it to another harmful action to resolve the problem. Amplify a harmful factor to such a degree that it is no longer harmful.
1. Increasing user choice and contestability in public services poses particular challenges to evaluation, to be able to make a robust comparison between two different service innovations.
23. Feedbacks
A. Introduce feedback (referring back, cross-checking) to improve a process or action.
1. The level of low politics sometimes can do more than high politics.
The value of networks of peers, such Society networks can also play a critical role in supporting continuous innovation, combining on-line discussion groups, face-to-face conferences and meetings, and research.
2. Instant feedback on service can obtain with voice of customer (VOC) tags.
B. If feedback is already used, change its magnitude or influence.
1. The introduction of resource accounting, and some new initiatives such as developing measures of assessment based on the creation of “public value” (G Kelly, 2002), The greater availability of real-time performance data to track successes and signal where problems are occurring.
2. Developing interim markers of likely success, against which progress can be assessed.
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3. Increase the collection of feedback data from customers and frontline civil servant. By using the means such as focus group, brainstorming, lead user interview, etc.
24. Mediators
A. Use an intermediary carrier article or intermediary process.
1. NGO is representation of certain group, and is the intermediaries between people and public agency. The relationship between them affects the image groups directly.
2. People can be advertisers from mouth to month of service offerings (e.g., a happy one is willing to share with his friends the experience of a good service offered by government).
B. Merge one object temporarily with another.
1. Middle management has a vital role in connecting the top of the organization with the bottom-driving innovation and learning as knowledge engineers.
2. Elements of traditional regulations help establish the organizational culture
3. Elements of charismatic leadership help motivate people.
25. Self-service
A. Make an object or system serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions
1. Independence, support funded by the government was joint working by ambulance, fire and police services in one area to share their communications and response facilities
2. The effectiveness of education is largely dependent on the civil servants’ own effort.
B. Use waste resources, energy, or substances.
26. Copying
A. Instead of an unavailable, expensive, fragile object or system, uses simpler and inexpensive copies.
1. In many public organizations, improve their job efficiency by viewing national, regional and organizational devolution as ‘laboratories of work innovation’.
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2. Recognizing similar systems and renewed program running.
B. Replace an object, system, or process with optical copies.
1. Benchmarking, Change often originates on the margins of society and from the experience of other countries.
C. If visible optical copies are already used, move to infrared or ultraviolet copies.
D. Copy creative service concepts across different industries.
1. Public bus systems can be similar in concept to bank credit card and automated teller machines.
2. Mail post sector can speed the delivery of its own product by examining how Federal Express delivers packages transferring process system.
27. Inexpensiveness
A. Replace an inexpensive object or system with multiple inexpensive objects or systems.
1. Using more influence social process with less connection, Simulations, building a ‘model office’ to test the Department of Social operational strategy for computerizing service benefit.
2. Video tape of lectures and CD recordings of concerts represent convenient substitutes for physical attendance.
3. In traditional service delivery, customers must travel to service facilities. Electronic communication can be substituted for physical travel
28. Replacement of a mechanical system
A. Replace a mechanical means with a sensory (optical, acoustic, taste or smell) means.
1. An Economic Management (EM) system serves as the “flesh and muscle” of an organization and provides for its effective functioning, rapid growth, and the appropriate treatment and consumption of flows (By Boris Zlotin et.al, 2005).
2. Incubate and prototype, develop promising ideas and manage attendant risks.
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B. Use electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields to interact with the object or system.
1. Implement the performance-based pay system successfully by utilizing strategic thinking to deepen the working motivation of employees, and to stimulate their potential abilities and shape the identity.
C. Change from static to movable fields, from unstructured fields to those having structure.
1. Internet technologies enable the real-time communication with visual images, which is a revolutionary change from the traditional way of calling over phone.
D. Use fields in conjunction with field-activated particles.
1. Apply manufacturing technologies to automate the back-office operations in service companies (e.g., airport luggage-handling system).
29. Pneumatic or hydraulic construction
A. Use intangible parts of an object or system instead of tangible parts
1.Providing “incentives” and ”risk sense-making” in the institutions to prevent the hidden insufficient members from shaping the insufficient bureaucratic organization.
2. The brand images of social policy service organizations can be a guarantee for service quality with Investigation Report on Custody Arrangement (e.g., social recognition of academic degrees from top universities or governmental certification system, which may stand for high quality of education for degree).
30. Flexible membranes or thin film
1. Social separators and flexibility in actions, the regulatory regime governing the sector has to be sufficiently permissive for the potential benefits for an organization of innovating that would not outweighed by the costs (risks) of non-compliance.
2. High quality risk management within organization conducted to well-judged experimentation whether they succeed or fail.
31. Use of porous material
A. Make an object or system porous or add porous elements (inserts, coatings, etc.).
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1. Events of social, economic, and cultural affairs probably create better conditions for the development of the organizational interaction. Communicate with civil servant by using any possible chance.
2. Channels for service providers listen to the voice of people. Information technologies create the opportunity for service providers to interact more frequently with Modern Society.
B. If an object or system is already porous, use the pores to introduce a useful substance or function.
1. In order to develop better or enhance service quality, service providers can encourage and reward customers to feedback their experiences of consuming delivered service products.
32. Changing the color
A. Change the color of an object or system or its external environment.
1. Changing the color of a city hall building of public infrastructure might be able to influence the customer’s perception of the image.
B. Change the transparency of an object or system or its external environment.
1. Changing the structure and renewed action
2. Avoiding any typical hospital color “association” might be helpful for rapid recovery for patients.
3. Sometimes it is useful to promote customer confidence by making part of service operations transparent to public scrutiny (e.g., offices provide a view into the working spot by lower the front line, some school parks can be viewed from outside).
33. Homogeneity
A. Make objects or systems interacting with a given object or system of the same material (or material with identical properties).
1. Encourage the civil servant stay with or work with who have something in common to discuss their experiences of their job to alleviate their preoperative fears.
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2. Using social fellow in processes, controlled experimentation, and behavioral simulation is a way of capturing complexity innovations.
34. Rejecting and regenerating parts
A. Make portions of an object or system that have fulfilled their functions go away (discard by dissolving, evaporating, etc.) or modify these directly during operation.
1. Analyzing and learning, evaluate what works and what does not to promote continuous learning and improvement, modifies or abandons these directly during operation.
2. Give away civil servants who do not intend or are not willing to cooperate.
3. Destroy social units useless units are in certain scheduling.
B. Conversely, restore consumable parts of an object or system directly in operation.
35. Parameter changes
A. Change an object's or system’s physical state (e.g. to a gas, liquid, or solid.)
1. Transformation of the structure, function or value in units, Creating time and physical and organizational space for structured and informal discussions for groups and informal teams is critical, which can encourage to foster innovation and improve services
B. Change the concentration or consistency.
1. The “focus” claver chief service strategy rests on the premise that service organization can serve its mainstream target groups more effectively and/or efficiently than other.
2. Change the concentration or consistency, specially the new policy.
C. Change the degree of flexibility.
1. City’s efforts to promote a made-to-order policy for its people are an attempt to differentiate itself from other’s classic approach to innovation service.
2. Museums send their top art works for stroll exhibitions over the world; famous circuses make travel shows across many places.
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D. Change the atmosphere to an optimal setting.
1. A rigid skeleton ensures an organization’s survival during difficult times, and increases its stability against destructive impacts.
2. A soft skeleton provides greater flexibility and adaptability to changing conditions. Too much freedom, however, can result in a loss of focus.
3. A hospital or office might need a relaxed environment with mood music as background.
36. Phase transformations
A. Use phenomena occurring during phase transitions (e.g. volume changes, loss or absorption of heat, etc.).
1. Working backwards from outcome goals, some cultural barriers remains more common in the public organizations than in private sector.
2. With the aging of the club members, some resort clubs might design more family activities to cater to the evolution of these members’ needs.
3. Recreation centers launch different new celebration in different special days.
37. Thermal expansions (Strategic expansion)
A. Use thermal expansion (or contraction) of materials.
1. Replication and scaling up, if the pilot or prototype broadly works, the challenge then is to launch the service or policy innovation on a larger scale.
2. Traffic service use adaptable service capacity to cater to fluctuating demands for rush hours.
B. If thermal expansion is being used, use multiple materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.
1. Good incubators provide money, advice and general support, and freedom, provides seed capital, business advice, technology and infrastructure support and space to allow ideas to develop.
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2. Dissemination is most effective as a mechanism for replication where there is a strong expressed demand among the organizations targeted.
38. Use strong oxidizers (Boosted interactions)
A. Replace common air with oxygen-enriched air
1. Giving organizations additional funding for having successfully adopted or adapted an innovation can increase motivation by providing extra facilities and opportunities for civil servant and users.
2. Contrary to the closed-system perspective that is taken in open policy, service operations system adopts an open-system concept because of the presence of customers in the process of service delivery.
B. Replace enriched air with pure oxygen (increase the level of participation in service delivery)
1. Incentives, The person or team whose innovation is adopted widely feel a sense of pride and contribution to public service and the creation of public value.
2. Further enhance the role of people as co-producers in service delivery.
C. Expose air or oxygen to ionizing radiation.
D. Use ionized oxygen.
E. Replace ionized oxygen with ozone.
39. Inert environment
A. Replace a normal environment with an inert one.
1. Politician always make a period of disappearance for avoiding some political storm, Social isolated environments for another chance to get back.
2. Freeze a case if not sure the case can be operated smoothly.
3. Use of neutral third parties during difficult negotiations.
4. Away-day sessions to involve civil servant in the integration process more fully.
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5. Allow applying to have rules suspended if they can make a reasonable case that this will improve results.
6. Using transient situation of social systems for some uncertain reason.
B. Add neutral parts or inert additives to an object or system.
1. Break time for a lecture.
2. Make all civil servants aware that there will be no (compulsory) redundancies and that the intention is to grow rather than shrink the reputation of organization.
3. Introduce a breathing space in which no changes can be occurred, allowing the system time to bed-down, neutral third-party negotiation team.
4. On many occasions, outcome can be better by doing nothing.
40. Composite materials
A. Change from uniform to composite (multiple) materials.
1. Welfare service provided by the public and private collaboration through contract out social policy
2. Composite social structures specific to the public agency is that of universality of application, laid in legislation if necessary.
3. Run by voluntary organizations - to operate services. Provide support mainly for charitable and voluntary sector entrepreneurship
This article interprets the possible meanings of the classic 40 inventive principles with examples from public service operations. To make the process of applying these principles on public service development practices, a service-specific contradiction matrix might be desirable to be created. One recommendation to accomplish this goal is to link generic service design and attributes together with 40 inventive principles through regulated attributes of public sector service. The paper brings these 40 strategies together in the specific context of public sector for the first time anywhere. They intended to be used as a complement rather than as a replacement for public problem solving and idea generation methods.
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G Kelly, (2002), Creating Public Value, an Analytical Framework for Public Service Reform.
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